Here's an interesting Capricon
panel. I think the warning about the answer not being just "prosthetics" is particularly interesting in another way -- by reminding us that we tend to think in terms of physical disability and accessibility, and forget that there are other kinds of disabilities.
In particular, the ones that affect the function of the central nervous system, and not just the obvious (cerebral palsy, epilepsy, etc). We live in a world made by and for neurotypicals, and persons with autism spectrum disorders, ADHD, and the like often encounter significant obstacles in ordinary social interactions, the sort that are often invisible to the neurotypical person. Neurodiverse individuals are substantially more at-risk for job loss, unemployment and underemployment, homelessness, and the problems that come with those situations.
For instance, persons with high-functioning autism often have trouble parsing social boundaries, particularly when it deals with such things as humor, in which part of the point of the activity is creating tension with expectations, but not too much or in the wrong direction. Because there is often a very fine line between hilarious and offensive, and this line is apt to shift unpredictably as time goes by, we have people who are intellectually brilliant but struggle with giving a presentation before an audience because they can never be sure whether their joke to lighten the mood will be well received or get them in massive trouble. One college professor with ASD finally committed suicide because of the continuing and ever-increasing strain from the difficulty of anticipating how his odd perspective on life and offbeat sense of humor would be received.
People with ADHD may not have such dramatic difficulties connecting socially, but their troubles with focus, organization and time-management often lead to others viewing them as lazy, selfish, careless and generally lacking in moral fiber. While there is growing evidence that people with ADHD have fundamental neurological differences which lead their minds to operate differently, most schools and workplaces are still organized on the assumption that paying attention, staying organized and being on time are a matter of buckling down and applying willpower. As a result, people with ADHD often end up trapped in a cycle of failure, unable to maintain employment and relationships.
Which raises the question of imagining a world in which neurodivergence is more successfully accommodated, not treated as a fault or failing but a difference that has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. What would a world like that look like?
In This Alien Shore
, C. S. Friedman imagines a future in which an early FTL drive caused strange mutations in the gene plasm of those who traveled by it. Some of the mutations are somatic and often viewed as grotesque -- whole societies are stigmatized as a result of these changes. But on one planet, the mutations were subtle changes in the organization of the nervous system, including subtypes that we would recognize as forms of autism and ADHD. And the culture that developed on that world developed some interesting ways to acknowledge the strengths of those differences while being strong for those people in the places where they were weak.